How To Guide

What is Polymer Clay: An In-Depth Guide to its Composition, Uses, and Techniques

Polymer clay is a versatile and popular crafting material that has captured the interest of artists and hobbyists alike. This colorful and moldable medium offers endless possibilities for creative expression, from intricate jewelry to detailed sculptures.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the world of polymer clay, its composition, uses, and techniques, and provide a thorough understanding of this fascinating material.

What is Polymer Clay?

Polymer clay is a synthetic modeling compound made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), plasticizers, and pigments. Unlike natural clay, which needs to be fired at high temperatures in a kiln, polymer clay can be hardened through baking at low temperatures in a conventional oven. This makes it an accessible and easy-to-use medium for artists of all skill levels.

The composition of polymer clay allows it to maintain its shape and intricate details even after baking, making it ideal for creating a wide range of artistic projects. It’s available in a vast array of colors, which can be mixed and matched to achieve unique shades and gradients. Additionally, polymer clay can be easily sanded, carved, and painted, further expanding its creative potential.

A Brief History of Polymer Clay

Polymer clay was first developed in Germany during the 1930s as a replacement for traditional clay. Originally known as “FIMO,” it was designed for doll-making but soon gained popularity for its versatility and ease of use. In the 1960s, the material was introduced to the United States, where it became a favorite medium for artists and hobbyists.

Over the years, various brands of polymer clay have emerged, each with its unique properties and characteristics. Some popular brands include FIMO, Sculpey, and Kato Polyclay. These brands offer different levels of firmness, making them suitable for various applications and techniques.

Working with Polymer Clay

  1. Conditioning: Before using polymer clay, it needs to be conditioned to make it soft and pliable. This can be done by kneading the clay with your hands or using a pasta machine. Conditioning also helps to eliminate air bubbles, which can cause cracks during baking.
  2. Shaping: Polymer clay can be molded and shaped using various tools, including your hands, knives, clay extruders, and texture sheets. You can create intricate patterns, textures, and designs by layering, blending, and carving the clay.
  3. Baking: Once your polymer clay piece is complete, it needs to be baked in an oven to harden. Each brand of polymer clay has specific baking instructions, including temperature and duration. It’s essential to follow these guidelines to prevent the clay from burning or becoming brittle.
  4. Finishing: After baking, you can further refine your polymer clay creation by sanding, buffing, and painting it. To protect your finished piece and give it a polished look, you can apply a clear sealant or glaze.

Techniques and Projects

Polymer clay offers a wealth of techniques and project ideas for artists of all skill levels. Some popular techniques include:

  1. Millefiori: This technique involves creating intricate patterns using colored clay, which is then sliced into thin sheets and applied to a base layer. The term “millefiori” means “a thousand flowers” in Italian, reflecting the floral patterns often created using this method.
  2. Caning: Caning is similar to millefiori but involves creating long, cylindrical shapes called “canes.” These canes can be sliced into thin cross-sections and applied to a clay surface to create repeating patterns and designs.
  1. Sculpting: Polymer clay is an excellent medium for creating detailed sculptures and figurines. You can build armatures using wire or foil to support larger or more complex structures. Various sculpting tools can be used to shape, carve, and add texture to your creations.
  2. Surface Techniques: There are numerous ways to add color and texture to the surface of polymer clay. Some popular methods include using inks, powders, metallic leaf, and texture sheets. You can also create faux finishes that mimic the appearance of materials like wood, stone, and metal.
  3. Jewelry Making: Polymer clay’s versatility and lightweight nature make it a popular choice for creating unique and colorful jewelry pieces. Earrings, pendants, bracelets, and beads can all be crafted using various techniques and finishes.

Tips for Success with Polymer Clay

  1. Always work on a clean, smooth surface to prevent dust and debris from getting embedded in your clay. You can use a ceramic tile, glass, or a silicone mat as a work surface.
  2. Use dedicated tools and equipment for working with polymer clay, as some materials can react negatively with the clay. For instance, avoid using wooden tools, as they can leave a residue on the clay.
  3. Store your polymer clay in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight. Keep it wrapped in wax paper or plastic wrap to prevent it from drying out or collecting dust.
  4. Be mindful of proper ventilation when baking polymer clay, as the fumes can be harmful when inhaled. Make sure to bake your clay in a well-ventilated area or use a dedicated oven for polymer clay projects.
  5. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for baking your polymer clay creations. Underbaking can cause the clay to be brittle, while overbaking can result in discoloration and burning.

Health and Safety Considerations

While polymer clay is generally considered safe to use, it’s essential to follow proper safety precautions. Some safety tips include:

  1. Do not ingest polymer clay or use it for food-related projects, as it is not food-safe.
  2. Wash your hands thoroughly after working with polymer clay, especially before handling food or touching your face.
  3. Do not use the same tools, equipment, or oven for both polymer clay and food preparation, as there is a risk of cross-contamination.
  4. Be cautious when using sharp tools, as they can cause injury if not handled correctly.

Polymer Clay Brands

Several popular brands of polymer clay are available, each with unique characteristics and advantages. Some of the most well-known brands include:

  • FIMO: FIMO offers a range of polymer clays, including FIMO Soft, FIMO Professional, and FIMO Effect. FIMO Soft is easy to condition, making it suitable for beginners, while FIMO Professional is designed for more advanced artists who require a firmer clay.
  • Sculpey: Sculpey has a wide variety of polymer clay lines, such as Sculpey III, Premo! Sculpey, and Super Sculpey. Sculpey III is a softer clay that is ideal for beginners, while Premo! Sculpey offers increased strength and durability for more advanced projects.
  • Kato Polyclay: Kato Polyclay is a high-quality polymer clay that is firmer than most other brands, making it suitable for detailed work and sculpting.
  • Cernit: Cernit is a European brand known for its high-quality polymer clay that is available in a wide range of colors and finishes, including metallic and translucent varieties.

Polymer Clay Tools and Equipment

Having the right tools and equipment can make a significant difference in your polymer clay creations. Some essential tools and equipment include:

  1. Clay conditioning machine: Also known as a pasta machine, a clay conditioning machine helps soften and condition polymer clay by rolling it into thin, even sheets.
  2. Clay roller: A non-stick clay roller is useful for rolling out clay by hand and creating even thicknesses.
  3. Cutting tools: Craft knives, clay blades, and cookie cutters are all useful for cutting and shaping polymer clay.
  4. Sculpting tools: Metal or silicone-tipped sculpting tools help shape, smooth, and add detail to your clay creations.
  5. Texture sheets and stamps: These tools add texture and patterns to the surface of your clay.
  6. Oven or toaster oven: A dedicated oven or toaster oven is needed for baking polymer clay creations. Be sure not to use the same oven you use for cooking food, as there is a risk of cross-contamination.
  7. Oven thermometer: An oven thermometer ensures that you are baking your clay at the correct temperature.

Storing and Caring for Polymer Clay Creations

Proper storage and care can help extend the life and preserve the appearance of your polymer clay creations. Some tips for storage and care include:

  1. Store your finished pieces in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight, as exposure to heat and sunlight can cause colors to fade or change.
  2. Avoid storing polymer clay creations in plastic containers, as some plastics can react with the clay and cause it to become sticky or discolored.
  3. To clean your polymer clay creations, gently dust them with a soft brush or wipe them with a damp cloth. Avoid using abrasive cleaners or solvents, as they can damage the clay’s surface.
  4. If your polymer clay creation becomes damaged or broken, you can often repair it using liquid polymer clay or a small amount of unbaked clay as an adhesive. After making the repair, rebake the piece according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Troubleshooting Common Polymer Clay Issues

Working with polymer clay can sometimes present challenges as with any art medium. Here are some common issues and solutions:

  1. Clay that is too hard or crumbly: If your polymer clay is difficult to condition or crumbles when you try to work with it, try adding a small amount of clay softener or liquid polymer clay to help soften it. Be sure to add the softener in small increments, as too much can make the clay too sticky to work with.
  1. Clay that is too sticky: If your polymer clay is too sticky, try letting it rest for a few minutes to allow it to firm up slightly. You can also dust your hands and work surface with a small amount of cornstarch or talcum powder to help reduce stickiness.
  2. Baking issues: If your clay creations are cracking or breaking during baking, make sure you’re following the manufacturer’s recommended baking temperature and time. Also, ensure that your oven’s temperature is accurate by using an oven thermometer. To prevent uneven baking, place a piece of parchment paper or a ceramic tile under your clay pieces during baking.
  3. Colors bleeding: To prevent colors from bleeding into one another, be sure to clean your hands and tools between working with different colors of clay. If you are layering different colors, it’s also a good idea to use a light touch when pressing them together to avoid unwanted blending.
  4. Fingerprints and imperfections: To minimize fingerprints and other surface imperfections, work with clean hands and tools, and handle your clay as little as possible. You can also use a piece of plastic wrap or wax paper between your fingers and the clay to help create a smooth surface.


Polymer clay is a versatile and accessible medium that offers endless possibilities for creative expression. Whether you’re new to working with clay or an experienced artist, understanding the basics of polymer clay, its history, types, techniques, tools, and troubleshooting tips can help you create stunning and unique art pieces. With practice and patience, you’ll be able to master the art of polymer clay and create beautiful, lasting works of art that you can be proud of.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the best brand of polymer clay for beginners?

Sculpey III and FIMO Soft are both beginner-friendly options, as they are easy to condition and work with.

Can you mix different brands of polymer clay?

Yes, you can mix different brands of polymer clay, but it’s essential to be aware of potential differences in baking times and temperatures.

How long does polymer clay last?

Polymer clay can last for several years if stored properly. Keep it in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and wrapped in wax paper or plastic wrap.

Can polymer clay be reused after baking?

Once polymer clay has been baked, it cannot be softened and reused. However, you can use baked clay pieces as part of new projects or break them down into smaller pieces for sculpting or embedding in fresh clay.

What is the difference between clay and polymer clay?

Traditional clay is made from natural minerals, while polymer clay is a synthetic material made from PVC, plasticizers, and pigments. Polymer clay does not require water for working and does not air-dry, which makes it a versatile and user-friendly alternative to traditional clay.

What is special about polymer clay?

Polymer clay is unique because of its versatility, ease of use, and the wide range of colors and effects that can be achieved. It can be easily shaped and molded, and once baked, it becomes durable and resistant to water and most chemicals.

Does polymer clay need to be baked?

Yes, polymer clay needs to be baked in order to harden and become a permanent, durable material. Baking times and temperatures vary depending on the brand, so it’s essential to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for optimal results.

Does polymer clay break easily?

When properly baked, polymer clay is quite durable and resistant to breaking. However, thinner or more delicate pieces may be more prone to breakage. To increase the strength of your creations, consider using a wire armature or reinforcing weak areas with additional clay.

Is polymer clay permanent?

Yes, polymer clay is a permanent material once it has been baked. The baking process transforms the clay into a solid, durable material that can withstand normal wear and tear.

Can polymer clay get wet?

Polymer clay is water-resistant and can get wet without being damaged. However, it’s essential to ensure that any metal components or other materials used in your creation are also water-resistant if they will be exposed to moisture.

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