How To Guide

How to use Polymer Clay: A Comprehensive Guide to Techniques, Tools, and Projects

Polymer clay is a versatile, user-friendly medium that has become increasingly popular among artists, hobbyists, and DIY enthusiasts. It’s a synthetic clay made from PVC and plasticizers that hardens when baked, making it perfect for creating a wide range of projects, from jewelry and home decor to miniatures and sculptures.

This comprehensive guide will teach you everything you need to know about using polymer clay, including the tools, techniques, and best practices for creating stunning works of art.

Choosing the Right Polymer Clay

Types of Polymer Clay

Several brands and types of polymer clay are on the market, each with unique characteristics. Some of the most popular brands include Sculpey, Fimo, Kato Polyclay, and Premo. When selecting polymer clay, consider factors such as consistency, color options, and baking temperatures.

Tips for Choosing Polymer Clay

  • Consider the project: Different clays are better suited for different projects. For example, some clays are more flexible after baking, making them ideal for jewelry or other wearable items.
  • Check the firmness: Softer clays are easier to work with for beginners, while firmer clays provide more detail and precision for advanced artists.
  • Experiment with different brands: Try various brands to find the one that best suits your needs and preferences.

Essential Polymer Clay Tools

Basic Tools

  • Work surface: A smooth, non-porous surface like a glass or ceramic tile is ideal for working with polymer clay.
  • Clay roller or pasta machine: These tools help you create thin, even sheets of clay.
  • Clay blades: Sharp or tissue blades allow you to cut and trim your clay precisely.
  • Needle tools: These are useful for sculpting, texturing, and piercing holes in your clay.
  • Oven thermometer: Accurate temperature control is crucial for successful baking, so use an oven thermometer to ensure the correct temperature.

Advanced Tools

  • Extruders: These tools force clay through shaped openings, creating consistent shapes and patterns.
  • Texture sheets and stamps: Use these to add intricate textures and patterns to your clay.
  • Molds: Silicone or flexible plastic molds allow you to easily create detailed, consistent shapes.
  • Liquid clay: This versatile medium can be used as an adhesive, a glaze, or to create unique effects in your projects.

Polymer Clay Techniques

Conditioning the Clay

Before working with polymer clay, it’s essential to condition it, making it soft and pliable. Use your hands to knead the clay or run it through a pasta machine until it’s easy to work with.

Color Mixing

Polymer clay comes in many colors, but you can also mix colors to create custom shades. Experiment with different color combinations to achieve the desired effect.

Creating Canes

Canes are a popular technique in polymer clay art, consisting of rolling and layering clay to create intricate patterns. Some common cane styles include millefiori, jelly roll, and bullseye.

Texturing and Embossing

Adding texture to your clay can create visual interest and depth. Use texture sheets, stamps, or household items like lace or sandpaper to create unique textures.

Finishing Techniques

After baking your clay, you may want to add finishing touches like sanding, buffing, or glazing to enhance the appearance of your piece.

Baking and Curing Polymer Clay

Baking Temperature and Time

Each brand of polymer clay has specific baking instructions, so be sure to consult the packaging for accurate temperature and time recommendations. Generally, most polymer clays bake between 230°F (110°C) and 300°F (150°C) for 15 to 30 minutes per 1/4 inch (6 mm) thickness. Using an oven thermometer will help ensure proper baking temperatures.

Baking Surfaces

Select a non-porous surface like a ceramic tile or glass baking dish for baking your polymer clay creations. You can also use a dedicated polymer clay baking sheet or parchment paper to protect your oven and prevent sticking.

Tenting and Support

Cover your clay with a tent made of aluminum foil to avoid scorching or uneven baking. For delicate or large pieces, use a support structure like polyester fiberfill or tissue paper to maintain the shape during baking.

Cooling and Post-Baking

Allow your polymer clay pieces to cool completely before handling to avoid warping or fingerprints. If needed, you can also re-bake your clay to add additional elements or correct any imperfections.

Polymer Clay Projects and Ideas

Jewelry Making

Polymer clay is popular for creating unique and colorful jewelry pieces such as earrings, necklaces, and bracelets. Experiment with different shapes, patterns, and textures to create one-of-a-kind accessories.

Miniatures and Sculptures

Using polymer clay, create small figurines, intricate sculptures, or realistic food miniatures. Combine techniques, such as caning and texturing, to achieve lifelike details.

Home Decor

Use polymer clay to create custom home decor items like picture frames, wall art, or decorative bowls. You can also use polymer clay to embellish existing decor items or create seasonal decorations.

Mixed Media Art

Incorporate polymer clay into your mixed media art projects by combining it with wood, metal, or fabric materials. Polymer clay can add texture, color, and dimension to your artwork.

Personalized Gifts

Polymer clay is perfect for creating personalized gifts, such as custom ornaments, keepsake boxes, or nameplates. Add meaningful details, like names, dates, or special patterns, to make your gift extra special.

Surface Techniques

Stamping and Texturing

Use stamps, texture sheets, or found objects to create patterns and textures on the surface of your polymer clay. Press the chosen texture tool onto the clay’s surface and gently remove it, leaving an impression behind. You can also use texture tools to carve or draw your designs directly onto the clay.

Mica Shift

Mica shift is a technique that creates an illusion of depth using metallic polymer clay. Roll the metallic clay through a pasta machine to align the mica particles. Then, impress a texture onto the clay, slice off the raised areas, and smooth the surface. The result is a smooth, flat surface with a 3D visual effect.

Image Transfers

Transfer images onto polymer clay using various methods, such as inkjet or laser prints, toner transfers, or image transfer paper. Apply the image face-down onto the clay, dampen the paper, and gently rub off the paper fibers, leaving the image behind.

Surface Treatments

Enhance the appearance of your polymer clay with surface treatments such as metallic powders, acrylic paint, alcohol inks, or foils. These treatments can be applied before or after baking, depending on the desired effect and the specific material used.

Polymer Clay Canes

Simple Canes

Start with basic polymer clay cane designs like bullseye or jellyroll canes. These simple canes involve stacking or rolling layers of colored clay, then reducing the cane to the desired size.

Complex Canes

As you become more comfortable with simple canes, try more complex designs, like flower, leaf, or geometric canes. These advanced canes often require precise placement of clay elements and careful reduction to maintain the design’s integrity.

Using Canes in Projects

Slice thin sections from your canes and apply them to the surface of your clay projects. Canes can be used to create intricate patterns, borders, or decorative accents on your polymer clay creations.

Advanced Techniques

Faux Techniques

Using polymer clay, create realistic imitations of natural materials, such as gemstones, wood, or ivory. These faux techniques often involve layering, texturing, and tinting the clay to achieve the desired appearance.

Sculpting and Modeling

Develop your sculpting and modeling skills by working with polymer clay to create lifelike figurines, animals, or other three-dimensional forms. Use a combination of shaping tools, texturing techniques, and hand-sculpting to achieve the desired level of detail and realism.

Hollow Forms and Armatures

Create lightweight and complex polymer clay structures by incorporating hollow forms or armatures. Use materials like aluminum foil, wire, or paper as a support structure, then cover them with a layer of clay. This technique allows for more substantial pieces without added weight or risk of cracking during baking.

Finishing Techniques

Sanding and Buffing

Smooth the surface of your baked polymer clay creations with sanding and buffing techniques. Start with coarse sandpaper and progress to finer grits for a smooth finish. Buff the surface with a soft cloth, buffing wheel, or buffing machine to achieve a glossy sheen.

Glazing and Varnishing

Apply a coat of glaze or varnish to your finished polymer clay pieces to enhance their appearance and protect the surface. Choose from matte, satin, or gloss finishes, depending on the desired look.

Adding Findings and Hardware

Attach findings, such as jump rings, earring hooks, or pendant bails, to your polymer clay creations to turn them into wearable jewelry or functional accessories. Use a strong adhesive, such as E6000 or a two-part epoxy, to secure the findings to the clay. Alternatively, you can embed eye pins or other hardware directly into the clay before baking for added durability.

Storing and Caring for Polymer Clay

Storing Unused Clay

Keep unused polymer clay in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Store the clay in airtight containers or plastic bags to prevent dust and debris contamination. Separate different colors to avoid accidental blending or color transfer.

Caring for Finished Pieces

Treat your finished polymer clay creations carefully to ensure they remain in good condition. Avoid exposing them to high temperatures, direct sunlight, or chemicals, as these can cause discoloration, softening, or damage to the clay. Clean your pieces gently with a soft cloth and mild soap if necessary.

Repairing Damaged Pieces

In the event of damage, polymer clay can often be repaired. Use a strong adhesive to reattach the broken parts if a piece breaks. For small cracks or surface imperfections, you can sometimes use liquid polymer clay to fill in the damaged area and rebake the piece.


Polymer clay is a versatile and accessible medium for artists of all skill levels, offering endless possibilities for creativity and self-expression. By mastering the techniques, tools, and best practices outlined in this guide, you’ll be well on your way to creating stunning polymer clay projects. Whether you’re new to polymer clay or an experienced artist looking to expand your skills, this comprehensive guide will provide you with the knowledge and inspiration you need to make your creations truly shine.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Can polymer clay be used to create jewelry?

Yes, polymer clay is an excellent medium for creating jewelry. You can make beads, pendants, earrings, and other wearable items by shaping the clay and adding jewelry findings.

How long does it take for polymer clay to bake?

The baking time for polymer clay varies depending on the brand and the thickness of the piece. Generally, it takes about 15-30 minutes at a temperature of 230-275°F (110-135°C) for most brands. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for optimal results.

Can you paint polymer clay after baking?

Yes, you can paint baked polymer clay using acrylic paints or other types suitable for use on plastic materials. Make sure to allow the paint to dry thoroughly before handling the piece or applying a protective sealant.

Is polymer clay safe for children to use?

Polymer clay is generally safe for children to use under adult supervision. However, following safety guidelines, such as avoiding ingestion and proper ventilation during baking, is essential. Choosing a non-toxic brand of polymer clay for children’s projects is also a good idea.

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